Let us make a reservation from the very start. The leaders of the fascist Germany ended up on the dock in Nuremberg, while the last leaders of the USSR responsible for the introduction of troops in Baku on 20 January, 1990 and of the death of civilians did not incur any punishment, and some of them continue to occupy high state posts in the new Russia.
And the most terrible thing about these people is that none of them repented their doings, apologized to the Azerbaijan people, moreover, they continue to accuse the Azerbaijan people of this tragedy, thereby insulting the memory of the innocent victims.
After more than ten years, Scientific Information Centre of Gorbachev Fund writes in The Chronicles of Perestroika. 1990, taking his readers for fools, "On 20 January, 1990, BY THE ORDER OF D. YAZOV AND V. KRYUCHKOV (highlighted by the author), troops entered Baku." Yazov gives the order on the introduction of troops in Baku without the order of the Commander-in-chief and somehow together with Kryuchkov. And, which is characteristic, there is no name of Gorbachev toady's, the USSR minister of internal affairs Bakatin in this list of Scientific Information Centre.
The order on the introduction of troops was given on 20 January, 1990 by Gorbachev, and Yazov, Bakatin, Kryuchkov and many others were full-weight accomplices of this crime!
The main ideologist and the organizer of the January tragedy, which he did not deny then and does not deny now, after more than ten years, was Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, fallen but no angel.
Here is how he states his reasons of the bloody events in Baku on 20 January, 1990 in his memoirs after a considerable lapse of time when there was a possibility to analyze what had happened and to draw correct conclusions, "The Beginning of 1990 was marked by a new aggravation of the Armenian-Azerbaijan relations which led to Armenian pogroms in Baku, to the "exodus" of Armenians from the city.
Despite the involved falsifications concerning the introduction of troops in Baku in January 1990, I should say that only force majeure compelled to declare state of emergency. This measure was aimed at the prevention of greater bloodshed. The developments were as follows.
In the evening of 13 January, groups of rampageous elements in the city of Baku provoked disorders and outrage which led to human victims.
On 15 January, the Bureau of the Azerbaijan Communist Party Central Committee considered urgent measures on the stabilization of the situation in Baku. The adopted resolution pointed that the criminal forces seeking destabilization of the situation in the republic, had openly passed to practical realization of their plans. Having taken advantage of sharp aggravation of the situation in NKAO and the adjacent regions, they strained the situation in Baku, drove a part of refugees from Armenia to illegal actions. During the disorders and outrage in Baku on 13 January, people, mainly Armenians, were killed by the hands of criminals, there were dozens of wounded. Pogroms of dwellings were made. Emergency measures were required.
The authorities aspired to restore the order. But internal conflicts and split paralyzed their activity and ability to control the situation.
Y. Primakov from the Presidential Council and A. Ghirenko from the CPSU Central Committee were sent to Baku. Extremely disturbing information on the development of the situation in Azerbaijan began to come from them. Outrage seized the republic, authority bodies were literally swept away in 18 regions, boundary constructions on two hundred kilometers of the Iranian border destroyed.
The Supreme Council of the republic proved to be incapable of making decisions in the conditions of mounting moral terror.
On 19 January, the Appeal of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Presidium of the Supreme Council and Council of Ministers of the USSR "To the Peoples of Azerbaijan and Armenia" was published. The decree of Presidium of the USSR Supreme Council declared state of emergency in Baku from 20 January. Organizers of the disorders, refusing to submit to the Decree, in every possible way interfered with the actions of the troops brought in Baku, which led to new victims.
On 20 January I spoke on the Central Television with an estimation of the situation and explanation of the actions of the country leaders.
This action was and is estimated in different ways. According to some, state of emergency was declared with delay, according to others, it should not have been declared at all. Answering to the former, I should say that the Soviet authorities could not do it over the head of the republican ones and did it when the work of the republican bodies was paralyzed. And I can assure those who considered declaration of state of emergency as an error, that in such situation something unpredictable could occur and it was necessary to stop violence escalation.
Yes, it pains me, it pains me much that lives of many Bakuvians of whatever nationality ended in January 1990. But had we not stopped violence then, there would have been much more victims. Have the lessons of January 1990 been learned? I doubt it, and the Azerbaijan-Armenian war confirms that.
The lesson I have learned from all this tragic history is that the authority cannot do without using force in extreme circumstances. But this action must be justified by absolute necessity and limited by strictly weighed measure. Actual decision of a problem is possible only by political means."
These lines visually show Gorbachev's monstrous essence. They are so full of lie, hypocrisy, impudence and cruelty that in other case would make up several volumes. "This measure was aimed at the prevention of greater bloodshed." Because of hypothetical future bloodshed, it appears, according to Gorbachev, it was necessary to annihilate 173 peaceful citizens of Baku, women, children, old men, suspecting nothing about "greater bloodshed". "Have the lessons of January 1990 been learned?" Gorbachev asks and answers himself, "I doubt it, and the Azerbaijan-Armenian war confirms that.". What hypocrisy! So, it is the Azerbaijan people that had to learn lessons from the Soviet aggression that was headed by Gorbachev and started Armenian aggression. Yes, it has learned lessons. But not those Gorbachev thought of. "The lesson I have learned from all this tragic history…." Having killed 173 people, Gorbachev does not think of repentance but "learns a lesson".
Only a man who sold his soul to the devil could say that.
During the earthquake in Spitak Gorbachev interrupted his visit in the USA and arrived in Armenia. Here is how M. Dokuchayev describes this episode, "The visit of M.S. Gorbachev and his wife in New York passed successfully but finished not absolutely right. The meeting with the US president R. Reagan on the island of Governors took place. On the way there on the ferry Gorbachev was urgently asked to answer the phone in the special motor vehicle. He talked for about five minutes. When he left the car he was pale; we understood that there was something disturbing. He held a meeting with Reagan and Bush, made a trip with them around the island, had his photo taken against Statue of Liberty, but it was obvious that Gorbachev was seriously anxious about something. We returned to the building of the USSR permanent mission at the United Nations and heard the terrible news about the earthquake in Armenia. Next day M.S. Gorbachev and the entire Soviet delegation left for Moscow."
However, when tanks were crushing civilians in Baku, he did not turn pale or red and did not even express official condolence to the families of victims.
The Chairman of USSR Council of Ministers Nikolay Ryzhkov was Gorbachev's economic accomplice in the gangster action against Azerbaijan, the bloody introduction of troops in Baku on 20 January, 1990. On 24 December, 1989, month prior to the gangster action, in an interview to the French TV he declared "the intention of the Soviet leaders to use army to stabilize the situation in Azerbaijan."
Actually, N. Ryzhkov could not act independently on the Karabakh problem, since he was surrounded by Armenians. At that time in the apparatus of the USSR Council of Ministers on key posts were occupied by: Sitaryan, deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers, academician Aganbegyan, chairman of the Economic Bureau, Arutyunov, the first deputy minister of heavy engineering, Arutyunyan V.A., chairman of Soyuzneftexport, Hitoyan V.V., general director of Vneshposyltorg, Sarkisyan Y., deputy chairman of the USSR State Meteorology Committee, and many others.
Ryzhkov did not hide but rather openly showed his brotherly attitude to Armenia and hostile one to Azerbaijan.
Kommersant Daily, 08.12.98, writes, "Nikolay Ryzhkov: "It was a terrible lesson for us". Less than a day after the earthquake in Spitak, late at night, the then Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers Nikolay Ryzhkov closed the door of his Kremlin office, and the latter did not see its owner for more than two weeks that."
He did not often visit all regions of the USSR, including in his home Russia where there were accidents.
It was Ryzhkov who totally withdrew NKAO from Azerbaijan in economic relation with more than 20 resolutions.
"The crying Bolshevik" (according to Sobchak; and he cried in Spitak), certainly, did not help the Armenians for free.
In April 1997, the chairman of the Duma committee General Rokhlin carefully prepares documents on "illegal deliveries of weapons to Armenia to the amount of more than 1 billion US dollars." It is assisted by honest Russian generals who understand well that the Russian army was robbed in broad daylight. Having done great work in the committee, Rokhlin is going to put the issue on the agenda at the State Duma of Russia. Strangers start to threaten him but you can hardly give a scare to a veteran general. And then the "Armenian" N. Ryzhkov joins the game. Having prepared all documents unquestionably proving larceny of a state scale, Rokhlin submits them to the State Duma. But he did not suspect at all about the power of thieves in the State Duma. N. Ryzhkov together his associate deputies who are also assisted by speaker Seleznev, obstructs Rokhlin's suggestion and the question is removed from the agenda due to their efforts. Owing first of all to N. Ryzhkov, Russia is robbed once again. Later, Rokhlin was murdered under mysterious circumstances.
He distinguished himself with his economic "innovation" for the first time when he was Prime minister of the USSR. On 8 May, 1988, on the initiative of the chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers N. Ryzhkov, "Cooperation Law" was adopted, owing to which "the shadow businessmen" received new injections of money on behalf of the government; cashing of budget money through cooperative societies began.
Nikolay Ivanovich Ryzhkov, Russian, in cooperation with the hated Yeltsin actually sold for nothing the basic strategic wealth of Russia, its oil and gas deposits, to non-Russian oligarchs who look rather towards the West than Russia. Was it a problem for him then to sell Nagorno-Karabakh, the territory of Azerbaijan, to the Armenians? We can say with absolute confidence, NO PROBLEM AT ALL!
Another thing is amazing. Putin sorts it out with oligarchs, whether he is right or wrong, the author is not qualified to judge. But the original cause of this, Ryzhkov, remains aside. It is like water off a duck's back for him!
The above-mentioned Gorbachev's concept was used by the "heroes" of the introduction of troops in Baku on 20 January, 1990.
Yevgeny Maximovich Primakov was the key figure of these events. It was him who put into practice Gorbachev's plan, while staying in Baku.
First, we will cite several very informative lines from Yevgeny Primakov's book Years in Big Politics.
"I sat in my office in the Kremlin (it belonged before to V.M. Molotov, then H.A. Aliyev) and discussed I do not remember what problem with my old tried-and-true friend Academician Stepan Aramaisovich Sitaryan; we had been friends since the time of our postgraduate study together at economic faculty of the Moscow State University…
The air smelled of a thunder-storm. In the evening of the 17th Shakhnazarov and I walked in the territory of sanatorium saying that signing of the already prepared agreement giving considerable rights to the republics that was to take place in several days in Ogaryovo (near Moscow), can be frustrated simply because its active supporters may be arrested…
On 20 August in the morning I was visited by A.I. Volsky, the head of the influential Industrial union, the former aide of Y.V. Andropov and my old good friend… (they kiss each other like two Sicilians on meeting even today - Author).
But in 1993, when we together with Markaryan received Jeridyan in the guest house of the SVR in the centre of Moscow, the conversation was entirely devoted to the prospects of Middle East conflict settlement…
After conversations with the then first secretary of the Central Committee of Communist Party of Azerbaijan A. Vezirov, A.Volsky with whom I was united by old-time companionship…
One more person from the SVR was transferred with me to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, my permanent assistant Robert Vartanovich Markaryan who was appointed the head of secretariat of the minister."
We would like not to be misunderstood; we do not by any means interfere in the sacrament of human friendship when everyone chooses friends and someone chooses them as friends. Moreover, we think that it only does credit to Primakov that he does not forget his old friends.
BUT NOBODY CAN CONVINCE US THAT, MAKING SOME OR OTHER DECISIONS ON THE KARABAKH PROBLEM OR OTHER PROBLEMS RELATED TO IT, PRIMAKOV DID NOT REMEMBER INTERESTS OF HIS INTIMATE ARMENIAN FRIENDS.
Vladimir Voronov writes, "The Arabist did not have time to distinguish himself in parliamentary activity at that troubled time, since the bugle (Gorbachev) sounded to battle. So he had to arm with the most advanced doctrine in the world and the experience of semisecret activity in the Middle East to leave for his own East, Azerbaijan. Not alone, though, but in good company: Minister of Defence Yazov, the chairman of the KGB Kryuchkov... They took with them still a heap of people in spotty uniform in order not to get bored in Baku. Academician did not have time to go to Sumgayit (in due time), you know, too much to do. Nor did he have time for the Armenian pogroms in December 1989 and the beginning of January 1990, New Year, you know... So he had to make up in the middle of the month. Afterwards, Azerbaijan inspectors, having restored the picture of the tragedy, came to the following conclusion. Our academician is one of the direct perpetrators. In 1994 the Azerbaijan authorities issued the verdict of the investigation and demanded extradition of the Arabist to their Eastern justice. It is evident that no one was going to extradite the man who had become by then the chief of the Russian intelligence. But it was rather unpleasant. The Azerbaijani probably received something as pay off in the Eastern manner or were threatened with something. Not with a finger."
A typical example of Primakov's provocative activity in Baku is the following episode. In the presence of Ghirenko, Mikhaylov etc., Primakov suggested that the sheikh of Muslims of the Caucasus Pashazade head the government. Naturally, the sheikh refused. Certainly, in case of his consent the Soviet propaganda would have declared to the whole world that radical Islamists came to power in Azerbaijan.
"Unlike many politicians, Primakov understands what he says himself. It is a rare thing for the present time," thinks his close friend and colleague, the president of the Russian union of industrialists and businessmen Arkady Volsky. And he is right. Primakov understood well what he was saying in Baku, his plans were unclear only to the local figures, Primakov was too good at hiding them.
Primakov is certainly a versatile politician and he showed that in Baku in full measure.
Den published the article The Return of Maxim which said that Yevgeny Maximovich Primakov, working for the KGB from his youth, later began to work simultaneously for Mossad as well. He did not deny it then and did not sue upon the newspaper.
Academician, security officer, spouting jokes right and left, he had always been playing complex games, changing rules on the move and not informing his opponents about it. His actions in Baku were like this, too.
We should say that Primakov differed favourably from other politicians of his time. Deep and versatile erudition, public romantic nostalgia for the past, walking thesaurus of jokes, friendship with various intellectual groups, marked attention to women and many other things.
And at the same time, strict implementation of plans of his masters (they changed from time to time).
Nothing human is alien to Primakov.
In October 1998 G. Yavlinsky said that Maslyukov, Gustov, Kulik, Matviyenko had bribed Primakov to be appointed deputy prime minister. Again, Primakov did not sue upon Yavlinsky! And it is not all about him yet!
"As for my personal attitude to him," Berezovsky writes, "I consider Primakov as the most dishonourable person I have ever met in my life. Twice, he said the words which anyone with some restrictions in his life should not say. He lied me in throat, swearing by the memory of his son."
It is familiar to the Bakuvians who listened to his peaceful assurances before the introduction of troops in Baku on 20 January, 1990.
"Primakov's dismissal was my personal victory," Berezovsky said in an interview to the French Le Figaro.
You can think of Berezovsky whatever you like but it was a decent deed on his part.
Nikolay Anisin writes, "But for his childhood friends, the Georgian Mamardashvili, the Armenians Shiroyan and Onikov, he still remained simply Zhenya, a boy without a nationality." The bad memory of the Azerbaijani will always keep Primakov as a bloody Zhenya without a nationality but with big love for the Armenian nationality!
A. Ghirenko and V. Mihaylov, members of Primakov's are guilty in full measure, but we would not even like to write about them, since they were so petty and cheap politicians, in a word, pieces of shit!
The former party organizer of Likhachev plant, Andropov's economy adviser, the bloody representative of Gorbachev in Karabakh, the double-dealer representative of Yeltsin in Chechnya, the honorary leader of oligarchs (turning to be their betrayer in the hour of need), a double or triple (depending on the situation) agent of secret services, from the KGB to the FSB (Federal Security Service) of Russia (not a complete image, though, there still versions possible), Comrade-Mister, the head of the Committee of Special Administration of Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, Comrade-Mr. Volsky furthered the introduction of troops in Baku in every possible way with his provocative actions.
The Russian mass media continue to speak today about Volsky's connection with secret means of the CPSU. Politician wrote, referring to "authentic sources", that in June 1990 Volsky, Shevardnadze and Yakovlev had transferred 200 billion dollars of the party money to Switzerland and then to the USA. Press secretary of B. Yeltsin Pavel Voschanov wrote in Komsomolskaya Pravda in the middle of 1992 that Volsky knew more about the party money than General Secretary of the CPSU. Gorbachev was also much interested in this money. According to Volsky, Gorbachev asked him once, "Arkady, is it true that you kept the party money?" Volsky, according to him, "was stupefied, his feet almost gave way under him for unexpectedness and insult. General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU of all people knew, should have known how the things really were." Not necessarily, as Fatekh Vergasov noted correctly. In one of his interviews after Karabakh Volsky says proudly, "After Karabakh I refused 11 offers to occupy considerable political posts. Including vice-president of the USSR Council of Ministers or ambassador to one of "rich" countries." He had become rich enough with the Armenian money in NKAO. Realizing well that the USSR was collapsing, he waited for new times: he was already going a different way than orthodox Communists, as he saw that they were already history. He looked closely at "red" directors, new owners of the Russian property. And he live to see the time he had been waiting for. The World Monitor wrote in March 1993 that "after the USSR collapse Volsky controls Russian industry," and considered that "the appointment Victor Chernomyrdin as the prime minister of Russia was Volsky's doing". Volsky's second specialty was to betray and re-betray. Just like Gorbachev, Volsky betrayed the CPSU that had raised him, by not having accepted the invitation to attend the constitutional trial of the CPSU as a witness. As Fatekh Vergasov writes, in 1992 Volsky gathered at his place people who, as Arkady Ivanovich "precisely knew, had considerable accounts in foreign banks." They suggested opening several Western banks in Russia because they did not trust Vneshtorgbank. Volsky took up the realization of this idea. That is the way it was, many a little makes a mickle!
Like any politician implicated in blood, Volsky refuses flatly to answer all questions of correspondents related to his stay in NKAO. And there are many questions to ask him concerning Azerbaijan. In that case there is only one way left, through court of justice!
His political activity in NKAO in relation to Baku can be characterized in one word - unrestrained mess!
And, certainly, Colonel of GRU Polyanichko was "a hand of Moscow"!
L. Yunusova tells how subtle and well-thought V.P. Polyanichko's activity in Baku was those days, "Nationalist antidemocratic Armenian national movement was to be opposed by the similar nationalist antidemocratic Azerbaijan movement (People's Front of Azerbaijan). Only in this case it would be possible to play off one people against another infinitely and to compel them to turn to the "master" in Moscow with the request to judge, protect etc. But the People's Front of Azerbaijan was not such and it should have been transformed. Therefore the second secretary of the Azerbaijan Communist Party Central Committee V.P. Polyanichko began recommending "subtly" to members of the People's Front of Azerbaijan board Tofik Gasymov and Zardusht Alizade to "strengthen Turkic and Islamic elements" in the programme of the People's Front. What a care about "Turkism and Islam"! Naturally, his advice was rejected."
Barannikov's role in January events remains obscure.
According to Sobesednik weekly, N2 1992, " he is not a bright reformer. Besides, there are many questions in connection with the January events of 1990 in Baku to ask Barannikov. At that moment he was the first deputy minister of internal affairs of Azerbaijan. And he should tell why the militia and internal troops did not interfere with the four-day Armenian pogrom and how the decision on the storm of the city was made."
From December 1991 till January 1992 Barannikov was the minister of security and internal affairs of the Russian Federation. According to Pavel Lukyanenko, in the state security bodies he saw a file of Barannikov himself concerning his criminal activity, which explains Barannikov's desire to head the Ministry of Internal Affairs and to destroy the compromising evidence. "He is involved in Baku events when the troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs began shooting when everything had already been over. As for Nagorno-Karabakh, he is involved in this directly."
Moscow correspondent of Radio Liberty M. Deich wrote in Literaturnaya Gazeta, № 2 1992 "…about the conclusions made by the Supreme Council experts concerning the powerful and coordinated forces behind Barannikov, forces which set the course for capture of power in the country."
It is still a mystery why Barannikov, having betrayed Yeltsin, came to the White House in October 1993.
But we will not receive the answer to all these questions, as Barannikov carried them away with himself to the other world, by the way, according to Russian press, under mysterious circumstances, too!
The USSR Minister of Defence of D. Yazov says in an interview to Izvestiya, "Troops were brought in Baku to break the structures of the People's Front." It is also well-known, that Yazov performed his "duty" in Baku with great satisfaction, he did not hide his pro-Armenian stand. Zory Balayan writes, "We met in Spitak when the terrible disaster fell upon Armenia, and I witnessed this strong and courageous person crying when looking at the body of a tiny child crippled in a blockage, I saw him dealing with subjects of life-support of victims in the zone of disaster day and night. We talked to him much saying that the impunity of "sumgayits" would generate new "sumgayits"..."
In Baku, Yazov killed peaceful citizens "day and night", without any regret. He did not cry or laugh, just killed without any emotions!
"I was the commander of the 4th army in Baku, and I still have the warmest memories of the Azerbaijan people," Yazov says to correspondent Kudryavtsev. He paid back for this warmth!
Lebed was one of the main perpetrators of the January events in Baku. He was the main executor of Yazov's order, "Shoot to kill!" He is responsible more than others, since he continued to throw mud at the Azerbaijani, living and dead, even after the tragic events, profaning the memory of the victims. Perhaps, he was the only participant of these bloody events in Baku who together with Gorbachev did not hide then or in the future hatred for the Azerbaijani and was proud of what he had done.
According to the American Los Angeles Times, the governor of Krasnoyarsk region Lebed gave the instructions to evict 23,000 Azerbaijani from Norilsk; it was the unique precedent in Russia, eviction for ethnic reasons. Only the interference of the Center stopped this lawlessness.
Much becomes clear in this person as time passes.
Here are some informative facts from the life of the general, shedding certain light on its behaviour in Baku.
In the beginning of his political career, Lebed declared on all television channels that he was "afraid to leave Transdniestria as war can begin there without him." He was lying! He left and no war began! He began a war himself in his time and killed 5,000 people!
At the crucial moment Lebed betrayed the defenders of the White House and went over to the State Emergency Committee. At last it was heard by the whole Russia and put an end to Lebed not only as politician but also as decent officer he had pretended to be for many years and which he made use of.
General Valery Manilov, the first deputy chief of the Joint Staff of Russia, and the head of information department of the USSR Ministry of Defence in the days of the State Emergency Committee, said to a correspondent on 10 October, 1991 that on 20 August he, together with Major General Gennady Koshuba and colonel Alexander Teplov, employees of the same department, dealt directly with the issue of the "feat" of Lebed and Yevdokimov. They were convinced that both served faultlessly and were loyal to the oath. Manilov shared the information with journalists and it appeared in Pravda on 21 August with the headline Do Not Believe Rumours.
The 30-year-old Major, the commander assistant of the 2nd battalion of 137th regiment of 106th division of airborne troops, told the correspondent the following about Yevdokimov.
"Our unit repeatedly has had to operate in flash points recently, SUMGAYIT, BAKU (highlighted by the author), Tbilisi. On 18 August about 12 o'clock we received the command of GENERATED ALERT BY THE "SOUTHERN" VARIANT (highlighted by the author)… About 5 o'clock the battalion commander Sergeyev received the task to move from Ryazan to Moscow area, Tushino airfield. There were all three battalions and an intelligence company. All fighters had personal weapon, ammunition was not given out but carried separately. Before Moscow the column was stopped, and representatives of the airborne troops command set specific task before battalions. Ours and the intelligence company were to arrive at "the white house" and to defend it... Kalinin Avenue had already been blocked by a barricade with about a hundred Muscovites... About 11.00 p.m. General Lebed arrived with deputies of the RSFSR Supreme Council who led us to the building of the Supreme Council through the circle of defenders surrounding it. BMD were placed around the building. No specific targets were set to the officers of the battalion, we were not explained how to operate in case of the storm by other divisions. They had only said that our task was to protect this building. As the mass of people there was also there with the same purpose, it was clear that it was not them we had to protect "the white house" against. No ammunition. Had any forces appeared trying to occupy the building by force we would not have known how to prevent it. Next day, about 12 o'clock, we received the command and left Tushino airfield ."
"Anyway, I," the correspondent writes, "as well as V. Manilov have the impression that VICTOR YEVDOKIMOV WAS ONE OF THOSE OFFICERS WHO WERE READY TO OBEY ANY POSSIBLE ORDER IN THAT SITUATION IRRESPECTIVE OF WHETHER IT WAS IN FAVOUR OF INHABITANTS OF "THE WHITE HOUSE" OR ON THE CONTRARY (highlighted by the author).
To reach his chief objective, to become the president of Russia, Lebed was ready for any concessions to the detriment of Russia. Except for the Armenian diaspora in the USA, as it was found out later, he had other more powerful patrons.
"A. Lebed occupies a special place in the late eighties in the Russian policy," O. Platonov writes, "in whose image the elite of the world backstage sees Yeltsin's modified analogue. Not so competent, limited, unscrupulous general appealed to the West with his willingness to make any concessions and agreements instead of political support.
In 1995 during my trip across the USA from I received the information the sources close to the governmental circles of this country that there is an opinion among influential American politicians that it was necessary that not Yeltsin but Lebed should be elected new president of Russia. Even the sum of money resources was mentioned which this group of politicians was going to "invest" in Lebed, about 1 billion dollars. I did not believe this information then, since the personality of Lebed seemed too insignificant and unimportant to me. However, the further events showed that I was mistaken.
In October, 1996 A. Lebed arrived in New York by invitation to take part in the meeting of one of principal bodies of the world backstage, the International Relations Council. The meeting was preceded by a friendly meeting between Lebed and "the architects of destruction of the USSR", heads of the above-mentioned council, the former US president G. Bush, former US State Secretary D. Baker and General B. Scowcroft. These known Russophobes familiarized Lebed with the agenda and designated the basic directions of discussion at forthcoming meeting.
On November, 18th Lebed was received in the International Relations Council. The meeting lasted about 5 hours. General was introduced by H. Kissinger, D. Rockefeller, 3. Brzezinski, the former American ambassador to Moscow, the intelligence agent D. Matlock, D. Simes took active part in the discussion. The leaders of the world backstage estimated the person of the general as the candidate for the post of president of Russia. Lebed assured "the world government" that he considered it necessary to continue the reforms begun by Yeltsin, approved pro-Western foreign policy of the present government and "cooperation with NATO without hysterics"… Answering the questions on the Caucasian territory of Russia, General said that he was ready to accept leaving the North Caucasus and transition of the whole Caucasian region under the control of the West. Lebed also agreed with the possibility of NATO trusteeship over nuclear objects of Russia …
At all sessions and meetings of Lebed with the American elite the question on the material help to the future candidate for presidency was discussed. According to an orthodox newspaper, in 1999 Lebed visited the largest French Masonic lodge "Great East". With his participation, an ancient ritual was conducted after which he was given honourable Masonic signs.
In connection with the Karabakh events there is no doubt that Lebed was moved ahead on the Armenian means as well.
It becomes clear from late revelations of Yeltsin's colleagues that at presidential elections of Russia they had beaten Lebed and used him to take part of voices from the Communists. In this respect the American means had not gone to waste, as his demagogical promises had really taken away a considerable number of voices from the Communists. And then, four months later, having used him as a disposable, Yeltsin's mafia threw Lebed from the top echelons of power.
Generals that hold officer's honour dear, such as Marshal Akhromeev, General Pugo, shoot themselves after the crash of their ideals. But such generals as Lebed grow fat after their treachery and continue, for the sake of career, to betray everything and everybody.
On 20 August, 1991 Lebed spread the rumour in the Russian mass media that he had shot himself. And then he declared proudly, "You will not live to see it!" It is also truth, for such people never shoot themselves!
They shoot others!
We did not add anything to the objective facts about Lebed! And these facts are enough to imagine the portrait of this person, one of the hangmen of the Azerbaijan people.
Lebed writes about himself, "For four bottles of vodka I got a job in flying club. They taught me everything in one day. I packed a parachute, jumped, fracture of arm and tailbone as a result."
The history repeats itself; on 28 April, 2002 the helicopter on which A. Lebed was flying, crashed. This time he did not give off with tailbone fracture, it was his swansong .
"He laughs last who shoots first," Alexander Lebed used to say. He was the first, the second and etc. who shot at Baku first! But, finally, life amended this algorithm of Lebed! "Say nothing but good of the dead". Lebed is not that case.
The bloody trace in Baku was left by General V.A. Achalov. As the deputy minister of defence of the USSR he supervised the actions of the Soviet troops in Baku. This bloody general said, "You wished to separate from the USSR, THEREBY STARTING ITS DESTRUCTION (highlighted by the author). We will not allow it at any cost." The bloody and zombie-like general thought that by killing peaceful people in Baku, he rescues the USSR. He continued his activity in his role of the saviour of the USSR later. Achalov, a member of the Central Committee of the CPSU and of the Central Committee of Communist Party of Lithuania, was in Vilnius where he coordinated actions of troops on the establishment of control over the television centre. Everyone knows how it all ended. On 17 August, 1991 he participated in the criminal meeting at which the decision on declaration of state of emergency and transfer of power to the State Emergency Committee was made. On 18 August, he prepared the meeting of the higher army command at which the plan of introduction of troops in Moscow, in particular, was approved. On 19 August, he coordinated the introduction of troops in the capital, personally supervised the actions of special units of the airborne troops establishing control over "Ostankino" television centre. Everyone knows how it all ended. This Soviet thug appeared in Baku on 20 January, 1990.
Gorbachev's toady, the USSR minister of internal affairs Vadim Bakatin, who afterwards crushed the KGB of the USSR "for the sake of democracy" and handed over top secret materials of the KGB to the Americans, in Baku, was concerned after the January events, mainly, about the capture of Panakhov and spreading provocative statements of the Armenians. "Recently, another barbaric crime against the Armenian people has been solved. Bodies of twelve Armenian disabled were found in vicinity of Ganja," he said on the Central Television. When checked, it turned out to be another lie. He was not concerned about hundreds of the peace citizens of Baku killed and wounded with his direct participation!
Gorbachev sent Bakatin to Baku for some reasons. He knew perfectly well that Bakatin was that sort of people for which the above-mentioned question is always relevant, ""Have you ever had mother?"
Boldin writes in his memoirs that one of deputy ministers of internal affairs began to collect secretly evidence compromising Gorbachev. Gorbachev entrusted Boldin with that issue.
"The visit to the deputy minister of internal affairs was not of much use," Boldin writes, "he was seriously ill, hardly spoke, and as doctors hinted, his days were numbered. The only thing he definitely said was that the order to check the activity of the Stavropol leaders had been received from very high-ranking persons from the Central Committee. The USSR Public Prosecutor's Office had its own task.
Vladimir Aleksandrovich and I asked deputy minister to call us if he remembered something else. Indeed, he called a week later but he just said that the minister of internal affairs V. Bakatin had prepared the order for his dismissal and he asked to say to Gorbachev that it was inhuman to behave so with a sick man.
Gorbachev reacted as follows.
"Tell Bakatin, this… (not too respectful expressions followed) that I will dismiss him earlier. The man has one foot in the grave, and this newly-made … (no less flattering words followed again) is ready to DANCE ON CORPSES (highlighted by the author)."
Bakatin's willingness "TO DANCE ON CORPSES" was the reason why Gorbachev sent him in Baku. And Bakatin understood his task right.
Colonel from Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Azerbaijan SSR asked him directly, "Are you not afraid of historical justice?" "I don't give a damn about history," answered Bakatin irritably. "It is more important to report to the country leaders that the order is executed."
The circle closed up!
"Vadim Bakatin was appointed the head of the KGB in the tragic period for the USSR after August 1991, actually having coaxed the post out of Gorbachev," write Georgy Podlesskikh and Andrey Tereshonok. "Why couldn't he wait to head the despised and constantly humiliated security service? Many believe that his appointment had a special-purpose character, the KGB destruction. He acquired himself such reputation of a destructor, indeed, by having given out many state secrets."
Gorbachev's perestroika, according to Russian mass media, destroyed the entire extensive network of the Soviet investigation with Bakatin's hands. In Reagan's period, 55 Soviet diplomats were turned out on the charge of espionage from the USA alone.
In that time while Bakatin was at the head of the KGB, all operating divisions actually lost Center management. About one year there was no security system as such in the country. It caused incalculable damage. The country was plundered as during enemy invasion. The paralysis of operative activity of state security service can be compared to a situation which arises when attending personnel suddenly leaves a driving blast furnace. Tap holes break, tuyeres burn, cast-iron lava under pressure of three atmospheres escapes from the tap hole and the furnace is frozen … It is improbably difficult to blow it again.
In his book Confessions of a Spy of P. Erli says, "When Vadim Bakatin was appointed the head of the KGB, the CIA congratulated him and expressed its support of his undertakings in the field of the KGB reforming," Aims told me. "And now I will tell you something that is still unknown to the general public. I wrote all telegrams to Bakatin on behalf of Milt! Can you imagine? But wait, it will be even more interesting. Berden is going to go to Moscow to discuss possible ways of cooperation with the KGB, well, you know, exchange information on terrorists, drugs and different other things... We give Bakatin so much information that Milt thinks that we should ask something in exchange but he cannot decide what exactly. It was then that I wrote a report to Milt suggesting that Bakatin give us the schemes which the KGB used for installation of bugs in the building of our embassy in Moscow. I mean, Bakatin tells everyone that he reforms the old KGB and that we are friends now. In a word, Milt says that to Bakatin, and you know what? Bakatin gave us the schemes. He showed us all precise points in the embassy where bugs had been installed.
V. Bakatin comments, "Taking that into consideration, as well as the fact that many elements of the system had been declassified in special journals and were out-of-date (?! - Author), I suggested a good will gesture (?! - Authors), giving to the Americans the scheme of the installed eavesdropping devices. Naturally, that required the sanction of the USSR president. I phoned to Gorbachev, wrote to him. He answered, "In coordination with Pankin (minister of foreign affairs. - a bus) take measures." By the way, besides Gorbachev, Yeltsin, at that time the Chairman of the RSFSR Supreme Council knew about my initiative. We had two phone conversations on this occasion."
It is typical for a mean traitor to shift a part of blame on others!
Apart from other things, Bakatin was related to mafia bosses. Georgy Podlesskikh and Andrey Tereshonok write, "Bakatin had reasons to be afraid. He received the information that there was a secret group operating under Kryuchkov's instructions which had found out much about the contacts of his subordinates in the Ministry of Internal Affairs with mafia bosses. On the basis of the received information, agents of the security service made the only possible and, as it turned out to be, correct conclusion. By 1990 the Ministry of Internal Affairs had actually taken up neutral stand position in relation to the criminal underworld. Major criminal authorities were spotted in Bakatin's circle.
It is no surprise that, becoming the chairman of the KGB, Bakatin showed unusual passion for confidential materials requested by him and vehemently searched for his name in reports."
High-ranking Soviet officers, including the above-mentioned, were watching closely the political conjuncture in the country. And this conjuncture demanded one thing from them during Gorbachev's action in Baku, the more you kill, the better!
Later, the former USSR minister of defence Dmitry Yazov said in the interrogation that Achalov, Grachev, Lebed and Gromov had been just keeping track of the situation in Moscow during the putsch within the frames of "official game".
The company of Primakov, Volsky, Bakatin gathered in Baku for some reasons. Apart from official contacts, they were all united by the so-called "red mafia" that laundered money of the CPSU.
According to L. Kislinskaya, "In May 1988 under the secret auspices of the 2nd and 5th departments of the KGB, our hero (Smolensky - Author) opens a building cooperative, one of the first in Moscow. It was within the frames of the so-called "computer programme" realized under the supervision of the CPSU CC (Arkady Volsky), the KGB (V. Grushko) and Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences (the CPSU CC member, Academician Yevgeny Velikhov).
The close relations between Volsky and Velikhov (remember his words about the tragedy of 20 January in Baku - Author) and Yevgeny Primakov allowed to solve the problem of merging capitals of the USSR foreign intelligence and counterintelligence. With this noble purpose the so-called "bank line" was established in December 1988 - February 1990.
As L. Kislinskaya writes further, the minister of internal affairs Bakatin also took part in that.
Obviously, the bloody friendship between Primakov, Bakatin and Volsky that began in Baku on 20 January, 1900 continued in the sphere of criminal business.
Yevgenia Albats, Bill Powell (Newsweek) write, "All the interviewed from the banking sphere, including those who were related to Gosbank and Vnesheconombank of the USSR, have no doubt that FIMACO was established first to transfer party money, second, to distribute part of loans granted to the USSR by Western banks in 1990-1992. "It is difficult to track their use and recurrency. The most document of that period in Moscow (they were kept in Vnesheconombank) are destroyed," an informed person from Vnesheconombank said.
In 1990, on the eve of Desert Storm, the Persian Gulf countries generously granted credits to the USSR, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and UAE gave about 1.75 billion dollars (according to the Western press, it was the price of the refusal of the USSR to veto the action against Saddam Hussein in the UN Security Council). The sources say that it was the special representative of the USSR president Yevgeny Primakov who achieved the credit from Kuwait. Part of those means, 250 million dollars, according to the well-informed sources in Vnesheconombank, was given through Eurobank and went to FIMACO."
The Soviet press depicted the special representative of Gorbachev in the Near and Middle East Primakov as a peacemaker in those years. He coined money of blood. Considerable amount of this money disappeared, according to Yevgenia Albats, Bill Powell, God knows where.
Here is how same of the "heroes" behaved during the interrogation by the republican investigating group.
Answering questions of the correspondent, one of the members of the investigating group recalls, "The people buried shekhids in one of the highest places of the city, forming the holy Alley of Shekhids that became the pilgrimage of the Azerbaijan people. Our courageous people was not crushed by the military aggression of one of the most powerful world states. And we achieved the independence we had been fighting for.
"You interrogated the persons who took direct part in the organization of the bloody action of 20 January. What can you say in this regard?"
"All that was said during the interrogations is imprinted in my memory like on a magnetic tape. Destiny gave me a chance to interrogate some representatives of the Soviet leaders who had arranged and performed that bloody evil deed. The chairman of the USSR Supreme Council Anatoly Lukyanov, the minister of defence Dmitry Yazov and the head of the State Security Committee were interrogated by me and the then Prosecutor General of our country Murad Babayev on 19 February, 1992.
We had to overcome some difficulties to be able to interrogate those persons. They were arrested by the public prosecutor's office of Russia on the accusation of the attempted coup d'?tat; each of them had a lawyer without which they refuse to be questioned. Eventually, we managed to overcome all obstacles and had a talk with each of them in the presence of their counsels."
"What questions did you ask them?"
"We tried to make them confess their crimes against our people themselves.
First, Marshal Yazov was brought. We were facing the commander of the armed forces of a military superpower who had given the order for a criminal action against my people. Frankly speaking, I could hardly control my emotions during the first meeting. My civic feelings mastered my official duty. I was overwhelmed with hatred for that man and was tongue-tied for a moment. But I pulled together.
At the start, the interrogation was in the usual course. The interrogatee, a typical martinet by nature, answered our questions. But when we began asking exposing questions he refused to give evidence, on the advice of his lawyer. And still, we did ask him all our questions and pointed out his personal liability for the mass murder of people.
I still can see his face before me, with evident anxiety cause by our sharp exposing questions. This mock of a warrior, who had given the order for mass murder of innocent people without a hesitation, actually turned out to be a coward.
From D. Yazov's evidence, "…On 19 January, 1990 I was invited to President Gorbachev. Minister of internal affairs was called there as well. The rest of those present were the chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers N. Ryzhkov and the chairman of the Supreme Council A. Lukyanov. Gorbachev said a dangerous situation had emerged in Baku and that Bakatin and I were to go there and restore the order. The same day, 5.00 p.m. local time we arrived in Baku. Here, in the office of the commander of the western direction General N. Popov, we met with representative of the USSR president Y. Primakov and O. Shenin, the first secretary of the Azerbaijan CP Central Committee A. Vezirov, discussed the situation and decided to declare state of emergency. On the night of 20 January, regular troops of the Soviet Army were brought in Baku. Entering the city, the troops met fierce resistance and were forced to open fire."
Yazov said that he was watching it himself, flying round the city on helicopter. What can we say about the heart of this man who was watching dispassionately the extermination of people?! Like most uncovered criminals, he spoke rather illogically and inconsistently.
So, having arrived in Baku on 19 January, Yazov examined the situation for several hours, then conducted a meeting with high-ranking officials at which the decision was made to declare state of emergency in the city. After hearing out this evidence, we asked the person under investigation the following question.
"When was it exactly that Presidium of the USSR Supreme Council passed the resolution on declaration of state of emergency? If this resolution was passed before your arrival at Baku, when did you redeployed military units from different parts of the country to the capital of Azerbaijan and totally block Baku?"
We pointed out to Yazov that none of the items of the legal procedure of declaration of emergency state had been followed, the population had not been warned, which had led to mass victims. Marshal made the following statement in response, "The troops were brought in the city at 3.00 a.m., and all decent people already sleep at that time…"
When we said that the troops entered the city at 12.00 a.m. he thought much, paced up and down the room several times and finally turned to us and said that he refused to give evidence. There was no agreement on legal mutual assistance between our two countries yet at that time, so we could not obtain answers to other questions.
The former head of the KGB of the USSR Kryuchkov first said that he knew nothing of the 20 January events because he had been on holiday then. However, the statement that the head of the country's secret service was unaware of the mass annihilation of people is obviously improbable. In response to our remark, Kryuchkov said that he had been receiving the information on these events through his own channels while being on holiday.
In the course of the interrogation we found out that Gorbachev had dressed Kryuchkov down for the extreme inactivity of the KGB special troops in Baku, unlike the army. It seems that the USSR president thought that the shed blood was not enough.
Calling upon Yazov and Kryuchkov to give evidence, we pointed out that assistance in clarification of details of this evil deed in Baku was not only civic but also human duty of everyone. We addressed them not as citizens of Russia but first of all as representatives of the mankind. But they refused to give comprehensive evidence. Evidently, the participants of that bloody crime fully realized the responsibility for such action.
As for Lukyanov, the latter did not refuse to give evidence but said that he did not remember much as many years had passed. We can hardly believe that one can forget so easily such blood crime committed on the level of the country's higher authorities!
We think that the chief result of those interrogations is that they realized their responsibility for that criminal action that is imprinted in the memory of our people for ever. Such deeds never remain unpunished."
The author is far from accusing Shevardnadze of the introduction of troops in Baku; he had no direct respect to those events. But at the same time, it is hard to believe that, being a member of the country's higher authorities, he was not let into that cobweb of intrigue. The fact that he did not condemn that action then or afterwards says much.
On 20 December, 1990, at the IV congress of the USSR People's deputies, Edward Amvrosiyevich Shevardnadze sent in his resignation from the post of the USSR minister of foreign affairs. In this connection, teletype tapes of the whole world were filled with the words like "dictatorship", "reactionaries", "colonels", "revanchists" etc.
But time proved that not those words alone were the reasons of Shevardnadze's resignation, or rather not those words at all; everything turned out to be much less romantic - the lion jumped out of Gorbachev's team and was preparing for a leap into Georgia.
Alexey Barkhatov asserts in his article The Lost Gold of the CPSU that "in 1992 the General Prosecutor's Office of Russia tried to summon Shevardnadze to the interrogation concerning the "gold of the Party" case. 20 billion dollars disappeared mysteriously from the CPSU foreign account after August 1991. As the country's minister of foreign affairs, Shevi was well informed about the foreign funds of the Central Committee. Not a single dollar of those funds was found; Shevardnadze refused flatly to say anything in the Prosecutor's Office and even took serious offence at being asked such insolent questions. Before his resignation from the post of minister, Edward Amvrosiyevich had time to make a gift for Russia by signing several interesting documents. His first stroke of the pen gave the Americans 200 miles of our water area (with plenty of valuable types of fish and crabs) on the border with Alaska in the Bering Sea. The second one resolved to withdraw the Soviet troops from the territory of the former GDR, though they could stay there even another 20 years, according the existing agreement. How can we grudge anything for good people, especially if that "anything" does not belong to us? "We did not understand themselves such policy of the Soviet leaders," the US ex-president George Bush Sr. recalls. "We were ready to guarantee that the Eastern Europe countries would never enter NATO, to remit many billions of dept but Shevardnadze did not even bargain and agreed to everything without preliminary conditions. The same was with Alaska border where we had not expected anything at all. That was a gift of God.
Edward has just turned the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs into his personal sinecure," Gamsakhurdia told me at the meeting in Grozny. "Foreign diplomats did not hide that they could solve any problem with the USSR for money. I even heard that Shevardnadze had prepared a project on gradual transfer of the Kuril Islands to Japan that had been willing to pay 20 billion dollars. Only the collapse of the USSR upset these plans."
Together with the US Secretary of State James Baker, behind Gorbachev's back, Shevardnaze took away a sea area with 18% of world oil reserves from the USSR!
Soon Georgia was ranking fifth in the world in drug trade (according to the open report of the international organization Global Drugs Termination); drug trafficking makes up 4 billion dollars annually, one fifth of which, according to the Georgian opposition, goes to the family of Amvrosiyevich."
Shevardnadze's last attempt to please the Americans is rather pitiful. President of Georgia Edward Shevardnadze said that he had reliable information that not only chemical and bacteriological weapon was produced in Iraq but the Iraqis also work at the creation of nuclear bomb. Shevardnadze sent a letter to George Bush saying that Saddam Hussein must be punished for production of mass destruction weapons. As became clear after the occupation of Iraq by the Americans, all three statements of Shevardnadze proved to be false.
We have little interest as to what of the above-mentioned is true but at least one thing is certain. Shevardnadze did everything watching the reaction of the USA, he furthered the USSR collapse in every possible way; the introduction of troops in Baku, as Shevardnadze realized, furthered the USSR collapse, too.
"There were Western secret services agents in the Kremlin!" Marshal Yazov knows them all by name, according to one of Russian newspapers. "Today, as some time passed after the downfall of the Soviet Union, I can say that there were influence agents of foreign secret services in our government. One of them was Edward Shevardnadze. When the flag of the Soviet Union on the Kremlin was being hauled down, he said that he had his share in the breakdown of the country. He did his best to destroy the Soviet Union."
Through the introduction of the Soviet troops in Baku as well.
And finally, Edward Shevardnadze has always been zealous towards Azerbaijan and negative towards the Azerbaijani. Do not be misled by his changed attitude to Baku when smell of oil was in the air.
The morality of these gentlemen is evident from the following. They sent mocking replies to all inquiries of the Investigating Commission of the Azerbaijan SSR Supreme Council about 20 January, 1990. There is not a hint in them at their desire to assist the commission.
|CHAIRMAN OF THE USSR STATE SECURITY COMMITTEE||To the USSR people's deputy Comrade Abasov M.T.|
The USSR State Security Council shares Your concern about the current complicated situation in the Azerbaijan SSR and for its part does its best to improve it.
On the subject of Your request, we inform You that in accordance with the established practice materials of republican party, Soviet and law enforcement bodies do not come in the KGB of the USSR.
As for the information of the State Security Council, it is submitted to the appropriate instances in the prescribed manner, including Presidium of thee USSR Supreme Council.
|THE USSR STATE SECURITY COMMITTEE of the Azerbaijan SSR 15.02.90 N 39/70 Baku||5 March, 1990 V. Kryuchkov N A-4508 To the USSR people's deputy Comrade Abasov M.T.|
Dear Mitat Teymur oglu!Concerning Your request, we inform You that the KGB of the republic does not inform directly the central, party and Soviet bodies of the country. In accordance with the order of the head of the USSR KGB, copying information submitted to the KGB of the USSR is strictly prohibited.
Concerning the issues within the competence of state security bodies, the KGB of the Azerbaijan SSR informs the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the government of the republic.
Chairman of the Committee V.A. Huseynov
|TO THE CHAIRMAN OF THE AZERBAIJAN SSR SUPREME COUNCIL STATE SECURITY COMMITTEE of the Azerbaijan SSR 23.05.90 N 10/01 Baku|
In response to N 2255 9 April, 1990The KGB of the republic informs You that the investigation of the facts of crimes and unlawful acts that took place in the city of Baku in January 1990 is conducted by the KGB, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Prosecutor's Office of the USSR.
Chairman of the Committee V.A. Huseynov
|THE USSR STATE SECURITY COMMITTEE of the Azerbaijan SSR 01.03.90 N 31/104 Baku||TO THE USSR PEOPLE'S DEPUTY Comrade ABASOV M.T.|
Dear Mitat Teymurovich!In pursuance of Your letter we inform You that criminal proceedings have been instituted based on the facts stated by You and are investigated by the bodies of the Military Prosecutor's Office.
Chairman of the Committee V.A. Huseynov
If we ignore common bureaucratic elements, then we can read between the lines the only thing. What, people were murdered in Baku, so what? Well done. You can complain to anyone you want! Such responses demonstrated that they understood that whatever they had done in Baku it all would have remained unpunished.
As the world practice shows, rather informative are further fates of some or other people that took part in significant events, in which we can certainly include the events in Baku on 20 January, 1990.
After frittering away the USSR, the main hero of the January events Gorbachev turned into a common showman from a person that had influenced the world events. Gorbachev advertises vodka, bed linen, pizza. For certain fee, he sings children songs in animation, takes part in weddings and funerals, almost lives by begging! We can hardly remember any head of state that fell so low!
For bribe, for a trifle, Ryzhkov pushed a draft law in the State Duma of Russia according to which oil deposits passed under total control of oligarchs, thereby creating big problems for Russia. As soon as Ryzhkov loses his deputy immunity, he is sure to face trial, which many politicians insist on.
Yazov, Kryuchkov, Varennikov, Kobets were imprisoned, the first three for the active participation in the State Emergency Committee, Kobets, who organized "reportages on street fights" in those January days, as a thief.
Yazov finally ruined himself by drinking. Twelve years after the January events in Baku, a message appeared in the Internet that Yazov sold a part of his officer honour, marshal's headdress for 500 dollars and his marshal's certificate for 200 dollars.
It is so painful that such insect killed best sons and daughters of Azerbaijan in Baku!
Kryuchkov got into "Region" Joint Stock Company in subordination of V. Huseynov, which is rather symbolic. Even more symbolic is the fact that "Region" Joint Stock Company was founded on the initiative of Bobkov.
After betraying the CPSU and Soviet power which he had been restoring in Baku in January 1990 by killing civilians, Varennikov left the Communist Party of the Russian Federation and joined "Rodina" group, hanging around its leader Rogozin.
Lebed ("liar and double-dealer", according to General Yenevich) died, Polyanichko was killed under unknown circumstances.
Ghirenko never budges from some dacha and keeps virtually no contacts with anyone. They say that he has some mental problems.
Vezirov, who disappeared in political nothingness, appears from time to time in odd roles. For instance, during the celebrations of Gagarin's jubilee a big interview was published in one of Moscow newspapers given by Vezirov about his meetings with Gagarin.
As we can see, none of the above-mentioned figures managed to carry their political career to its logical conclusion; they all ended up somewhere in back seat, some died ingloriously, another virtually went mad, another became a drunkard and so on!
Only Primakov is a "special line" in this list. The head of the Russian intelligence, the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Prime Minister of Russia, minister of Russia under three presidents of two different countries (the USSR and Russia) and about ten premiers of Russia etc. Different countries, different state systems, leaders of different political course, with different administrative systems and finally with different human characters. The political phenomenon of Primakov undoubtedly deserves special research; Talleyrand is a child compared to Primakov!
By Lenin's order an international team arrived in Azerbaijan in the beginning of the last century, Kirov, Orjonikidze, Mikoyan and others. Alongside with the Communist ideology, these uncivilized people brought much suffering to the Azerbaijan people. But we should say that they believed in the Communist future of the country, THEY AT LEAST BELIEVED IN SOMETHING.
Those who arrived in Baku to turn over the last page of the Soviet power were politicians THAT BELIEVED IN NOTHING, NEITHER GOD NOT DEVIL, NEITHER COMMUNISM NIR DEMOCRACY! Their primary and sole aim was to remain afloat, in no matter what water. After the collapse of THE USSE NONE OF THEM remained loyal to their Communist views, their party, their comrades-in-arms; each betrayed and sold everything and everyone and began to seek a snug little place in the new Russia.
"Forgive your enemies, but never forget their names," John Kennedy used to say.
THE AZERBAIJAN PEOPLE WILL NEVER FORGIVE OR FORGET THE NAMES OF THE "HEROES" OF THE INTRODUCTION OF TROOPS IN BAKU ON 20 JANUARY, 1990!